Nuclear Imaging of Bacterial Infection

A review of current imaging techniques for bacterial infection diagnosis, and a preview of novel radiotracers currently in development.

Course ID: Q00659 Category:
Modalities: , , , ,


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Targeted CE per ARRT’s Discipline, Category, and Subcategory classification:
[Note: Discipline-specific Targeted CE credits may be less than the total Category A credits approved for this course.]

Computed Tomography: 0.50
Procedures: 0.50
Head, Spine, and Musculoskeletal: 0.25
Neck and Chest: 0.25

Magnetic Resonance Imaging: 0.50
Procedures: 0.50
Neurological: 0.25
Musculoskeletal: 0.25

Nuclear Medicine Technology: 1.25
Procedures: 1.25
Other Imaging Procedures: 1.25

Radiography: 0.50
Procedures: 0.50
Head, Spine and Pelvis Procedures: 0.25
Thorax and Abdomen Procedures: 0.25

Registered Radiologist Assistant: 1.00
Procedures: 1.00
Abdominal Section: 0.25
Thoracic Section: 0.25
Musculoskeletal and Endocrine Sections: 0.25
Neurological, Vascular, and Lymphatic Sections: 0.25

Sonography: 0.50
Procedures: 0.50
Abdomen: 0.25
Superficial Structures and Other Sonographic Procedures: 0.25


  1. Introduction
  2. Imaging Infection: The State of the Art
    1. Structural Imaging Techniques
    2. Functional Imaging Techniques
  3. Clinical Uses of NM in Imaging Infection
    1. Musculoskeletal Infection–Osteomyelitis
    2. Cardiovascular System Infection
    3. FUO
  4. Newer Approaches to Microorganism-Specific Imaging
    1. Antibiotics
    2. Carbohydrates
    3. Cofactor or DNA Synthesis
    4. Iron Transport and Storage
    5. D-Amino Acids
  5. Conclusion


Upon completion of this course, students will:

  1. know the patient population(s) for which diagnosing infections can be difficult due to infectious and inflammatory conditions having similar signs and symptoms
  2. understand where structural imaging techniques excel in infection diagnosis
  3. be familiar with the strengths of the various medical imaging methods that are used to diagnose infection
  4. know the most commonly used noninvasive technique for tissue structure evaluation
  5. understand the advantages and disadvantages of MR structural imaging
  6. know what is anticipated by the clinicians using NM techniques for infectious disease evaluation
  7. know what the uptake of radiolabeled diphosphonate in pathologic processes depends upon in bone scintigraphy
  8. know the phases of a TPBS and what they demonstrate
  9. be familiar with the facts of scintigraphy with labeled autologous white blood cells
  10. be familiar with the administered activity range in MBq for the various NM imaging techniques
  11. know what can be done to possibly improve WBC scintigraphy’s specificity
  12. understand the advantage of 67Ga-citrate imaging over WBC scintigraphy for immune-compromised patients
  13. be familiar with the patient preparation requirements for 18F-FDG imaging
  14. understand the reasons why the diagnosis of osteomyelitis commonly delayed
  15. know the test of choice for the assessment of peripheral bone infections in patients who have undergone intervention
  16. be familiar with the strengths and weaknesses of the various NM imaging techniques for spinal osteomyelitis
  17. be familiar with the NM imaging options for the assessment for possible prosthetic joint infection in both early and late stages post-surgery
  18. know how NM imaging can best contribute to the diagnosis of cardiovascular system infections
  19. know what has been suggested by a recent metaanalysis about 67Ga-citrate imaging for FUO
  20. be familiar with the targeted unique microbial pathways used by some of the newer radiotracer methods for bacterial infection evaluation
  21. be familiar with the mechanisms, targeted bacterial pathogen, and the pathogens tested in vivo for recently developed bacteria-specific radiotracers
  22. know the reported capabilities of 18F-FPTMP in rodent models
  23. be familiar with how 2-deoxy-2-18F-fluoro-D-glucose-6-phosphate is made and its clinical utility
  24. be familiar with the various radiotracer options for targeting the maltodextrin transporter in the assessment for bacterial infections
  25. be familiar with the creation and use of 2-deoxy-2-18F-fluorosorbitol
  26. understand how radiolabeled PABA incorporates in the body for imaging
  27. know the method that has been shown to greatly increase the 18F-PABA uptake
  28. understand the demonstrated downsides found with 124I-FIAU imaging
  29. be familiar with some of the basic information on 68Ga citrate and its use
  30. be familiar with how D-amino acids can be use in the imaging process