Imaging of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Cancer Therapy

A review of molecular mechanisms and clinical applications of immune checkpoint inhibitors, the current strategy to distinguish pseudoprogression from progression, and the imaging appearances of common immune-related adverse events.

Course ID: Q00577 Category:
Modalities: , , ,


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Targeted CE per ARRT’s Discipline, Category, and Subcategory classification for enrollments starting after March 24, 2023:

Registered Radiologist Assistant: 2.25
Safety: 2.25
Patient Safety, Radiation Protection, and Equipment Operation: 2.25


  1. Introduction
  2. Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: A New Frontier in Cancer Therapy
  3. Challenges in Imaging Assessment of Treatment Response
  4. Immune-related Adverse Events
  5. Conclusion


Upon completion of this course, students will:

  1. identify the first immune checkpoint inhibitor to receive FDA approval in early 2011
  2. list the malignancies for which immune checkpoint inhibitors are now standard therapies
  3. describe the organization that approves and regulates biopharmaceuticals in the U.S.
  4. list examples of diagnostic and therapeutic biopharmaceuticals
  5. identify the process responsible for T-cell activation and immune system-mediated tumor elimination
  6. describe the composition of current immune checkpoint inhibitors
  7. list the immune checkpoint inhibitors that are FDA-approved for treatment of metastatic melanoma
  8. describe the standard of care for first-line treatment of NSCLC with high PD-L1 expression
  9. list the immune checkpoint inhibitors that are FDA-approved for treating Hodgkin lymphoma
  10. identify the blood cell responsible for the production of antibodies
  11. describe the animal used to produce the first engineered monoclonal antibodies
  12. list the monoclonal antibodies used to treat viral infections
  13. describe the percentage of patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors who demonstrate pseudoprogression
  14. list the cancer types for which pseudoprogression has been reported
  15. identify the criteria used to assess tumor response to immune checkpoint inhibitors by accounting for the possibility of pseudoprogression
  16. identify the criteria that include the use of follow-up imaging to differentiate true progression from pseudoprogression
  17. describe the consensus guideline on the timing of radiologic assessment of immune checkpoint inhibitor response
  18. list common immune-related adverse events associated with immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy
  19. define a new measurable lesion as described by RECIST 1.1 criteria
  20. describe the timing of gastrointestinal immune-related adverse events after initiation of ipilimumab treatment
  21. describe the imaging time points used by the authors for assessment of response to immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment for renal cell carcinoma
  22. list the symptoms of metastatic melanoma patients who present with hypophysitis following treatment with ipilimumab
  23. list the immune checkpoint inhibitors that are associated with a lower rate of pneumonitis
  24. identify immune-related adverse events associated with immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy that are considered to be reversible
  25. list the medications used to treat cases of severe and life-threatening immune-related adverse events