Acute and Stress-Related Injuries of Bone and Cartilage

The anatomy, physiology, and biomechanics of normal bone and cartilage are reviewed and imaging features encountered following acute traumatic and stress-related injuries to the skeleton are presented.

Course ID: Q00508 Category:
Modalities: ,


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Targeted CE per ARRT’s Discipline, Category, and Subcategory classification for enrollments starting after February 17, 2023:
[Note: Discipline-specific Targeted CE credits may be less than the total Category A credits approved for this course.]

Bone Densitometry: 2.00
Patient Care: 2.00
Patient Bone Health, Care, and Radiation Principles: 2.00

Computed Tomography: 2.50
Procedures: 2.50
Head, Spine, and Musculoskeletal: 2.50

Magnetic Resonance Imaging: 2.50
Procedures: 2.50
Musculoskeletal: 2.50

Nuclear Medicine Technology: 2.00
Procedures: 2.00
Other Imaging Procedures: 2.00

Radiography: 2.50
Procedures: 2.50
Extremity Procedures: 2.50

Registered Radiologist Assistant: 2.50
Procedures: 2.50
Musculoskeletal and Endocrine Sections: 2.50

Sonography: 2.50
Procedures: 2.50
Superficial Structures and Other Sonographic Procedures: 2.50


  1. Introduction
  2. Skeletal Development and Growth
  3. Modeling and Remodeling
  4. Bone Anatomy
    1. Macroscopic Anatomy
    2. Microscopic Anatomy
    3. Articular Cartilage Anatomy
  5. Stresses, Forces, and Modes of Structural Failure
  6. Chondral and Osteochondral Injury
  7. Subchondral Bone
    1. Anatomic and Biomechanical COnsiderations
    2. Subchondral Contusion (Bone Bruise
  8. Cortical Bone
    1. Biomechanics of Cortical Bone
    2. Crack Initiation and Deflection
    3. Cortical Fracture
  9. Stress Injury of Bone
    1. Insufficiency Fracture
    2. Fatigue Fracture
  10. Summary


Upon completion of this course, students will:

  1. state the processes of bone development
  2. organize the process of intramembranous ossification
  3. recall the layers of tissue essential to bone turnover
  4. list the areas of endochondral ossification
  5. state the primary ossification center of tubular bone
  6. describe the growth plate location
  7. list the responsibilities of osteoclasts
  8. describe osteocytes
  9. describe how long skeletal remodeling lasts
  10. list the stages of remodeling
  11. describe the effect of bisphosphonates on the process of bone resorption
  12. state the prominence of woven bone
  13. express how much of the adult skeleton is comprised of cortical bone
  14. know the composition of hematopoietic and fatty marrow
  15. define matrix
  16. list the mineral components of the matrix
  17. relate minerals to bone strength, rigidity, and hardness
  18. define hyaline articular cartilage
  19. explain the composition connective tissue located in Hyaline articular cartilage
  20. recall the responsibilities of chondrocytes
  21. define load
  22. define anisotropy
  23. list the forms of uniaxial loading
  24. list the factors that determine the biomechanical behavior of articular cartilage
  25. state the most common location for chondral and osteochondral injuries
  26. give the percentage of osteoarthrosis seen in adult knee arthroscopies
  27. list the types of osteochondral injuries
  28. state the location in the body where trabeculae are studied most extensively
  29. differentiate bone porosity for cortical and cancellous bone
  30. state how many osteons are contained in the adult skeleton
  31. tell where tensile bone injury classically occurs
  32. note the number of stress fracture subtypes
  33. list the components of the “female athlete triad”
  34. relate bone mineral density to percent of bone strength
  35. document where fatigue injury most commonly occurs